Evolution factor recombination


Recombination is the redistribution of genetic material during meiosis. Recombination makes it virtually impossible for two identical progeny to be produced and is therefore the main reason for high genetic variability.
In contrast to the evolutionary mutation, which creates new variations, recombination only provides for a different distribution of the existing (!) Genetic material. There is no change in the gene pool.
Recombination in genetic engineering: With the help of "tools", recombinant DNA can be artificially created in the course of cloning in modern genetic engineering and subsequently be added back to the organisms by vectors (plasmids or viruses). The conventional method is based on the idea of ​​using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA on specific, recognizable sequences and recombine using ligase (enzymes for the connection of two molecules).

Interchromosomal recombination

Interchromosomal Recombination: In the metaphase within meiosis, all chromosomes "gather" in the equatorial plane (see picture on the right). In the following anaphase, a random distribution of the homologous chromosomes, which are pulled by the pulling fibers of the spindle apparatus to the edge of the cell, now occurs. In this way, the chromosome pairs are recombined. So they can now consist of the maternal and maternal chromosomes.

Intrachromosomal recombination

Intrachromosomal Recombination: Affects recombination between homologous chromosomes within meiosis. During prophase, the chromatids overlap one another (crossing over). This can lead to a fracture of sections, which are then closed with parts of the other chromatid again, so that it comes eventually to a partial exchange of chromosomes of the fetal and maternal chromosomes.