As aggression (Latin aggressio = attack) is called behavior, the ...
1. Causes damage (regardless of personal or material damage)
2. Intentionally done (willfully and intentionally)
3. deviates from the social norm (must not be considered normal)
These three factors are required for an aggressive action. If one factor is missing, one can no longer speak of aggression: If the damage is missing, there is no aggression (be careful, very narrow, a fright reaction from the victim is already sufficient). Aggression is characterized by its intent, if it is missing, it is considered as accidental (for example, teacher asks the student to throw the chalk forward, but the student meets the teacher on the head without any intention). And finally, the behavior must also deviate from the social norm in order to be classified as aggressive (a regulated boxing match, for example, does not fulfill these conditions).
Note: The above definition is of course only valid for humans. Even animals show aggression, but under completely different conditions. These include aggression related to food acquisition, defense, mating season and territorial fighting.
Explanatory notes for aggressive behavior
To date, there are more than a dozen different theories and models for explaining aggression. Below are some known ones listed. But beware: no theory is to be regarded as "the right one". This overview is more for the acquisition of knowledge, for the different perspectives. Since most of the theories have been based on a paradigm, these too should receive at least a small amount of attention in personal opinion formation.
drive theory: Man has an innate, lifelong drive for aggression. The aggression builds up over time, and must be lived out from time to time. (Perspective of psychoanalysis)
instinct theory: Aggression is a natural part of nature and preserves its own species. Other species also have aggressive behaviors. (View of ethology)
Operant conditioning: If necessary, you can get to your destination faster with force. If an aggressive approach works, try it again. If it works this time, aggression - because of the success - in the own behavioral repertoire. (View of behaviorism)
Learning by the model: People take other people as a role model. Aggressive people can therefore serve as role models for non-aggressive people. (View of cognitivism)
Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Frustration is a necessary condition for aggression. Frustration can (not necessarily) be followed by aggression.
Types of aggression
Aggression is not the same as aggression. Using different dimensions, aggression can be categorized:
Open aggression vs. Covert aggression
(for other visible violence vs. mental or secret)
Direct aggression vs. Indirect aggression
(immediate violence vs. 'psychoterror', such as bullying
foreign aggression vs. autoaggression
(Violence against others vs. violence against oneself)
Emotional aggression vs. Physical aggression
(Mental violence vs. physical violence)