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Core (Britt's page) - Biology


Core (Britt's page)

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology

The following is an alphabetical list of active MCB faculty members and brief descriptions of their research. Additional faculty lists are available using the links below.

Click on a faculty member's name to see a complete description of their research (if available). Alternatively, use the search form below to search the faculty research interest pages for keywords.

Michael Botchan
Dean of Biological Sciences Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Eukaryote DNA replication and control of S phase

Carlos Bustamante
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Raymond and Beverly Sackler Chair and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structural characterization of nucleo-protein assemblies

Jamie H. D. Cate
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Molecular Basis for Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

Christopher Chang
Class of 1942 Chair and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Deciphering roles for metals and redox signals in neurobiology, metabolism, and cancer enabled by activity-based sensing and related chemical technologies

Michelle Chang
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Enzyme catalysis and metabolic engineering

Kathleen Collins
Walter and Ruth Schubert Family Chair, Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology of retroelements, retroelement reverse transcriptases, and functional RNAs

Karen Davies
Assistant Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structural biogenesis of mitochondria and carbon concentrating mechanisms

Jennifer A. Doudna
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, Li Ka Shing Chancellor's Chair in Biomedical and Health Sciences and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
RNA-mediated gene regulation

Peter Duesberg
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
The cancer karyotype: What it is and what it does

Britt Glaunsinger
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Virology messenger RNA processing and degradation

James Hurley
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structural membrane biology

Nicholas Ingolia
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Molecular basis and physiological roles of the Translational control of gene expression through global and genome-wide analyses

John Kuriyan
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Chancellor's Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structural and functional studies of signal transduction and DNA replication

Michael Marletta
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structure/Function Relationships in Proteins Enzyme Catalysis Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Signaling

Susan Marqusee
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Determinants of protein structure and folding

Andreas Martin
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Energy-dependent proteases and molecular machines

Sabeeha Merchant
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Biochemistry of metals photosynthesis and bioenergy genomics of algae

Evan Miller
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Chemical biology, neuroscience, organic chemistry, fluorescence, imaging

Eva Nogales
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structure-function of macromolecular assemblies: cytoskeleton self-assembly and nucleic acid transactions

Daniel K. Nomura
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Using chemoproteomic platforms for drug discovery against the undruggable proteome and incurable diseases

James Nuñez
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Epigenome editing, epigenetic memory and inheritance CRISPR technology development

Eunyong Park
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structure and mechanism of membrane transport proteins cryo-EM biochemistry biophysics

Daniel Portnoy
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Molecular and cellular basis of microbial pathogenesis

Donald Rio
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Molecular genetics transposable elements RNA splicing

David Savage
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Synthetic biology and metabolism.

Alanna Schepartz
CZ and Irmgard Distinguished Chair of Chemistry, Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Chemical and synthetic biology how cellular molecules and machines function and how this information can be used to design new and useful molecules.

Robert Tjian
Howard Hughes Medical Institute President and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Eukaryotic molecular biology biochemistry

Ross Wilson
Assistant Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic delivery of genome editing enzymes

Ahmet Yildiz
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Structural mechanism of molecular motors. High resolution imaging of subcellular structures

Qiang Zhou
Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
Biochemistry of HIV gene expression and transcriptional elongation

Roberto Zoncu
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology
How organelles sense nutrients and regulate cellular growth


Statement of Philosophy

The philosophy of Britt Elementary School, in partnership with parents, students, and the community, is to foster the academic, emotional, and social growth of each student by providing a safe learning environment. Our basic purpose is to equip students with the academic and social skills that will help them develop into lifelong learners and responsible decision makers.

We believe all students as individuals can learn and should be given opportunities to develop to their full potential in an environment conducive to the attainment of academic experience, and we believe a developmentally appropriate curriculum is necessary for students to develop essential academic skills and problem-solving ability.

We believe our staff is committed to the education of all children. Each member of the staff strives to prepare each student for a productive role in society.

We believe that through the parent-educator-learner partnership, we all share in the responsibility for developing excellence at Britt Elementary School. We must jointly plan and work cooperatively to provide the best possible education for our children.


Test Dates and Score Reporting Dates

Select the Praxis ® test you are taking from the dropdown, then select your test date from the calendar on the left. After your selection, the right-hand calendar will display the score reporting date. Scores are posted after 5 p.m. ET on the date shown.

Note: When scores are scheduled to be posted on a Monday or Friday that falls on an ETS holiday, they will be reported on the following Friday and Tuesday, respectively.

Show me the At Home delivery dates.

To register for a test, log in to your Praxis account.


The evolution of pelvic aspiration in archosaurs

Movements of the pelvic girdle have recently been found to contribute to inspiratory airflow in both crocodilians and birds. Although the mechanisms are quite different in birds and crocodilians, participation of the pelvic girdle in the production of inspiration is rare among vertebrates. This raises the possibility that the pelvic musculoskeletal system may have played a role in the ventilation of basal archosaurs. Judging from the mechanism of pelvic aspiration in crocodilians and the structure of gastralia in basal archosaurs, we suggest that an ischiotruncus muscle pulled the medial aspect of the gastralia caudally, and thereby helped to produce inspiration by increasing the volume of the abdominal cavity. From this basal mechanism, several archosaur lineages appear to have evolved specialized gastralia, pelvic kinesis, and/or pelvic mobility. Kinetic pubes appear to have evolved independently in at least two clades of Crocodylomorpha. This convergence suggests that a diaphragmatic muscle may be basal for Crocodylomorpha. The pelvis of pterosaurs was long, open ventrally, and had prepubic elements that resembled the pubic bones of Recent crocodilians. These characters suggest convergence on the pelvic aspiratory systems of both birds and crocodilians. The derived configuration of the pubis, ischium and gastralia of non-avian theropods appears to have enhanced the basal gastral breathing mechanism. Changes in structure of the pelvic musculoskeletal system that were present in both dromaeosaurs and basal birds may have set the stage for a gradual reduction in the importance of gastral breathing and for the evolution of the pelvic aspiration system of Recent birds. Lastly, the structure of the pelvis of some ornithischians appears to have been permissive of pubic and ischial kinesis. Large platelike prepubic processes evolved three times in Ornithischia. These plates are suggested to have been instrumental in an active expansion of the lateral abdominal wall to produce inspiratory flow. Thus, many of the unique features found in the pelvic girdles of various archosaur groups may be related to the function of lung ventilation rather than to locomotion.


High School Graduation Requirements

All public high school students must meet minimum state graduation requirements to earn a diploma and graduate. These graduation requirements are considered the Future-Ready Course of Study (FRC) requirements and prepare students for post-secondary success.

All students must earn at least 22 credits in the Future-Ready Course of Study to graduate from high school. The Future-Ready Course graduation requirements ensure that a student is prepared for life and whatever pathway they choose after they graduate, workplace, colleges/university or the military. Below are the specific course requirements.

The Occupational Course of Study is available for those students with disabilities who are specifically identified for the program and has adapted course requirements and the same credit requirements as FRC. Below are the specific course requirements.

Although the state requires a designated number of courses and credits for students to graduate high school, local school districts and other public school units may require additional courses and credits to graduate. Families and students are strongly encouraged to check with their high school to determine if their district and/or school have additional requirements for students to earn a high school diploma.

For the Graduating class of 2020 and 2021:
  • SBE waives the CPR graduation requirement for the graduating class of 2020 and 2021. SBE will request a waiver from the CPR legislation for this year’s graduating class, NCGS 115C-12.9d and 115C-8 1.25.10.
  • For Occupational Course of Study students, SBE reduces the graduation requirement of paid employment to 157 hours.

Students entering ninth grade for the first time in 2021-2022 must pass the following courses and earn at least 22 credits:

Four sequential English credits which shall be:
Four Mathematics credits which shall be either:
  1. NC Math 1, 2, and 3 and a fourth mathematics course to be aligned with the student’s post high school plans
  2. In the rare instance a principal exempts a student from the Future-Ready Core mathematics sequence, except as limited by N.C.G.S. §115C-81(b), the student will be required to pass: NC Math 1 and Math 2 plus two additional courses identified on the NC DPI Math options chart.

Note: Credit shall be awarded for Math I, II, III if taken prior to the 2016-17 school year.

Three Science credits which shall be:
Four Social Studies credits which shall be:
  1. Founding Principles of the United States of America and North Carolina: Civic Literacy
  2. Economics and Personal Finance
  3. American History
  4. World History
One Health and Physical Education credit:
  1. Students are required to successfully complete CPR instruction to meet Healthful Living Essential Standards as a requirement for high school graduation.
  2. Accommodations/alternative assessments for students identified by ADA or IDEA will be provided.
Two Elective credits of any combination from either:

Note: For clarification, possible elective combinations may include 2 World Language credits or 1 CTE credit and 1 Arts Education credit or 2 CTE credits or 1 Arts Education credit and 1 World Language credit or other combinations from a, b and c.

Four Elective credits from the following (four-course concentration recommended):
  1. Career and Technical Education (CTE)
  2. ROTC
  3. Arts Education (e.g., dance, music, theater arts, visual arts)
  4. Any other subject area or cross-disciplinary courses (e.g., mathematics, science, social studies, English and dual enrollment courses)

Students who entered ninth grade for the first time in 2020-2021 must pass the following courses and earn at least 22 credits:

Four sequential English credits which shall be:
Four Mathematics credits which shall be either:
  1. NC Math 1, 2, and 3 and a fourth mathematics course to be aligned with the student’s post high school plans
  2. In the rare instance a principal exempts a student from the Future-Ready Core mathematics sequence, except as limited by N.C.G.S. §115C-81(b), the student will be required to pass: NC Math 1 and Math 2 plus two additional courses identified on the NC DPI Math options chart.
Three Science credits which shall be:
Four Social Studies credits which shall be:
  1. American History: Founding Principles, Civics and Economics
  2. Founding Principles of the United States of America and North Carolina: Civic Literacy
  1. American History I
  2. American History II
  3. American History

NOTE: It is strongly recommended that these students take World History in the first year of their high school Social Studies course sequence due to the nature of the adoption of the new Social Studies Standard Course of Study effective in 2021-22. Economics and Personal Finance is strongly recommended to be offered later in the student's high school career.

One Health and Physical Education credit:
  1. Students are required to successfully complete CPR instruction to meet Healthful Living Essential Standards as a requirement for high school graduation.
  2. Accommodations/alternative assessments for students identified by ADA or IDEA will be provided.
Two Elective credits of any combination from either:

Note: For clarification, possible elective combinations may include 2 World Language credits or 1 CTE credit and 1 Arts Education credit or 2 CTE credits or 1 Arts Education credit and 1 World Language credit or other combinations from a, b and c.

Four Elective credits from the following (four-course concentration recommended):
  1. Career and Technical Education (CTE)
  2. ROTC
  3. Arts Education (e.g., dance, music, theater arts, visual arts)
  4. Any other subject area or cross-disciplinary courses (e.g., mathematics, science, social studies, English and dual enrollment courses)

Students who entered ninth grade for the first time in 2014-2015 must pass the following courses and earn at least 22 credits:

Four sequential English credits which shall be:
Four Mathematics credits which shall be either:
  1. NC Math 1, 2, and 3 and a fourth mathematics course to be aligned with the student’s post high school plans
  2. In the rare instance a principal exempts a student from the Future-Ready Core mathematics sequence, except as limited by N.C.G.S. §115C-81(b), the student will be required to pass: NC Math 1 and Math 2 plus two additional courses identified on the NC DPI Math options chart.

Note: Credit shall be awarded for Math I, II, III if taken prior to the 2016-17 school year.

Three Science credits which shall be:
Four Social Studies credits which shall be:

Effective 2020-21:

a. a founding principles course which shall be either:

  1. American History: Founding Principles, Civics and Economics
  2. Founding Principles of the United States of America and North Carolina: Civic Literacy (Note: These courses must follow the NCSCOS in its entirety and may not be satisfied by any other courses).

b. American history courses which shall be either:

  1. American History I and American History II
  2. American History I or II and another Social Studies course
  3. American History and another Social Studies course

Prior to 2020-21:

  1. American History: Founding Principles, Civics, and Economics (Note: This course must follow the NCSCOS in its entirety and may not be satisfied by any other courses).
  2. American History I
  3. American History II
  4. World History
One Health and Physical Education credit:
  1. Students are required to successfully complete CPR instruction to meet Healthful Living Essential Standards as a requirement for high school graduation.
  2. Accommodations/alternative assessments for students identified by ADA or IDEA will be provided.
Two Elective credits of any combination from either:

Note: For clarification, possible elective combinations may include 2 World Language credits or 1 CTE credit and 1 Arts Education credit or 2 CTE credits or 1 Arts Education credit and 1 World Language credit or other combinations from a, b and c.

Four Elective credits from the following (four-course concentration recommended):
  1. Career and Technical Education (CTE)
  2. ROTC
  3. Arts Education (e.g., dance, music, theater arts, visual arts)
  4. Any other subject area or cross-disciplinary courses (e.g., mathematics, science, social studies, English and dual enrollment courses)

Students following the Occupational Course of Study entering ninth grade for the first time in 2021-2022 must pass the following 22 credits plus any local requirements:

Four English credits that shall be:
Four Mathematics credits that shall be:
  1. Introduction to Mathematics
  2. NC Math I
  3. Financial Management
  4. Employment Preparation IV: Math (to include 150 work hours)
Three Science credits that shall be:
  1. Applied Science
  2. Biology
  3. Employment Preparation I: Science (to include 150 work hours)
Four Social Studies credits that shall be:
  1. Founding Principles of the United States of America and North Carolina: Civic Literacy
  2. Economics and Personal Finance
  3. Employment Preparation II: Citizenship 1A (to include 75 work hours)
  4. Employment Preparation II: Citizenship IB (to include 75 work hours)
One Health and Physical Education credit:
  1. Students are required to successfully complete CPR instruction to meet Healthful Living Essential Standards as a requirement for high school graduation.
  2. Accommodations/alternative assessments for students identified by ADA or IDEA will be provided.
Two Additional Employment Preparation Education credits, which shall be:
  1. Employment Preparation III: Citizenship II A (to include 75 work hours)
  2. Employment Preparation III: Citizenship II B (to include 75 work hours)

The work hours included in Employment Preparation I, II, III, IV shall be as follows:


Three Dimensional Science Instruction

The four Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) provide organization of content, further clarified in developed in component ideas.

  • PS – Physical Sciences
  • LS – Life Sciences
  • ESS – Earth and Space Sciences
  • ETS – Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

The eight Science and Engineering Practices (SEP) reflect the types of engagement a scientist or engineer encounters as part of their work and should be incorporated in a grade-appropriate manner in all grade.

  • AQDP - Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) to determine what is known, what has yet to be satisfactorily explained, and what problems need to be solved.
  • MOD – Developing and using models to develop explanations for phenomena, to go beyond the observable and make predictions or to test designs
  • INV – Planning and carrying out controlled investigations to collect data that is used to test existing theories and explanations, revise and develop new theories and explanations, or assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and durability of designs under various conditions
  • DATA – Analyzing and interpreting data with appropriate data presentation (graph, tables, statistics, etc.), identifying sources of error and the degree of certainty. Data analysis is used to derive meaning and evaluate solutions.
  • MATH – Using mathematics and computational thinking as tools to represent variables and their relationships in models, simulations, and data analysis in order to make and test predictions.
  • CEDS – Constructing explanations and designing solutions to explain phenomena or solve problems.
  • ARGS – Engaging in argument from evidence to identify strengths and weaknesses in a line of reasoning, to identify best explanations, to resolve problems, and to identify best solutions.
  • INFO - Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information from scientific texts in order to derive meaning, evaluate validity, and integrate information.

The seven Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) reflect conceptual understandings that transcend any particular discipline, yet permeate into mastery-level understanding of any given discipline.

  • PAT – Pattern observation and explanation
  • CE – Cause and effect relationships can be explained through a mechanism
  • SPQ – Scale, proportion, and quantity that integrate measurement, appreciation of scale in natural events, and precision of language
  • SYS – Systems and system models with defined boundaries that can be investigated and characterized by the next three concepts
  • EM – Energy and matter conservation through transformations that flow or cycle into, out of, or within a system
  • SF – Structure and function of systems and their parts
  • SC – Stability and change of systems

Note: The State Board of Education sets the requirements for high school graduation (see the High School Policy 2.103). Per SBE Rule, students must achieve three high school level units of science in order to graduate with a high school diploma, including Biology I, either Chemistry I or Physics, and one additional laboratory science course. View a list of the courses required for high school graduation.

Note: The third lab science must come from the list of courses with permanent science course codes or select CTE courses. Special courses, submitted by districts, may not substitute as a third lab science. For a list of permanent science course codes or to locate the select CTE courses that will satisfy the third lab science graduation requirement, consult the correlation of course code document.


Comet Announcements

Summer Enrichment + Acceleration will be held June 14&mdashJuly 2, 2021.

GCPS&rsquo Summer Enrichment + Acceleration activities will focus on accelerating and expanding on student learning for the current grade and previewing what students will learn at the next grade level. Students will work in flexible learning groups and will use a range of learning strategies as part of their summer learning. And, this year&rsquos summer program includes enrichment opportunities outside the core subject areas (Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies). Students will participate in fun and engaging activities and learning typically offered in Specials and Connections courses.


Contact Us

Gwinnett County Public Schools wishes to meet the needs of all of its students and families. If any member of your family needs assistance or has any questions regarding mobility impaired issues or handicapped access, please contact the principal of your local school.
If any visitor to this site has an issue accessing information, please contact us.

Copyright © Gwinnett County Public Schools. All Rights Reserved.

This web page contains links to one or more pages that are outside the GCPS network. GCPS does not control the content or relevancy of these pages.
This website provides the option to use Google translate GCPS cannot assure accuracy of the translation.


Department of Biology

If you’re interested in life and the natural world, biology is for you. Whether you’re curious about molecules and cells, or organisms and ecosystems, you’ll work with award-winning faculty as you seek to answer significant questions in biological sciences.

The Department of Biology has flexible undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Top-rated biology faculty from around the globe will lead and guide you as you explore and refine your research interests through labs and field work. Faculty members also serve as primary advisors to both undergraduate and graduate students.

When you major in biology, you’ll establish a general background in the discipline through a series of first-year and sophomore-level core courses that preview the major sub-disciplines of biology. This introductory program is followed by courses that allow you to focus on more advanced material.

Biology faculty have research interests that span the breadth of modern biology, from molecules to ecosystems and are committed to research training of students at all levels. If you’re considering graduate work in the biological sciences, many opportunities for undergraduate research are available with our dynamic and award-winning faculty, as well as participation in the annual Undergraduate Research Conference.

Our 230,000 sq. ft. Life Sciences Complex has excellent facilities to help you prepare for a wide range of opportunities. The confocal microscope and five climate-controlled greenhouses provide valuable tools for research and discovery, helping both faculty and students stay on the cusp of leading developments in the field of biology.

Take biology out into the world.

Many of our undergraduate students go on to pursue careers in academia, industry, governmental agencies and a wide variety of professional settings. Students are also well prepared for medical, dental, or veterinary schools, or to enter the many specialized graduate programs in the biological sciences.

Recent graduate students have found employment in universities and colleges as postdoctoral researchers, eventually going on to faculty positions at a variety of institutions. Other graduates have found employment in industry, in medical settings, and in environmental education, among other fields.

Whatever your interests, your biology degree can take you far. To learn more about all your options, talk to your advisor.


Watch the video: DREGS Presents: Machine Learning in Minerals Exploration with Britt Bluemel of Goldspot Discoveries (January 2022).