The floors of the forest

What are the floors of a forest?

The maximum growth of plants in the forest ecosystem results in separable layers. In this context, in analogy to a house, a distinction is often made between five different floors: basement, ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and attic.
The Floors of the forest are ordered logically from top to bottom in the following. So if you want to start with the ground, please scroll down to the bottom.
By the way: The technical term for the division into different layers is stratification.

Attic: tree layer

Depending on the type of forest, the tree top layer is formed by deciduous trees, conifers or both (mixed forest). As a rule, the leaf roof closes this layer and prevents large amounts of light from reaching the forest floor. In the heights of the tree layer only birds, climbing animals, insects and climbing plants can be found.
Altitude: 4 to 30m
occurring plants: trees
Animals: squirrels, owl, bat and woodpecker

2nd floor: shrub layer

The shrub layer consists of differently high bushes, bushes but also young trees. Normally, the bushes rarely grow larger than three meters. In this layer are often the nests of brooding birds.
Height: 1 to 3m
occurring plants: bushes, shrubs, young trees
Animals: blackbird, thrush, deer and butterfly

1st floor: herb layer

The transition between cabbage and shrub layer is relatively fluent and can be recognized only on closer inspection. Usually only plants can exist, which are either early bloomers (flowering in spring, before the trees form their full leaf roof) or semi-shade / shadow plants.
Height: 0 to 1m
occurring plants: grasses, herbs, small plants, flowers
Animals: fox, rabbit, deer and wild boar

Ground floor: moss layer

Basically, the moss layer describes only those vegetation that is directly on the vegetated soil and that does not show any significant growth in height. These include only mosses, lichens and small mushrooms. In this layer, including the adjacent humus layer in the soil, most insect species are found.
Height: 0 to 0.1m
occurring plants: lichens, mosses and fungi
Animals: ant, warbler, spider and snake

Basement: root layer

The root layer includes all subterranean areas. Depending on the region, the root layer may well be over 25 meters. The soil itself consists of a fertile humus layer.
Height: -5 to 0m
occurring plants: only root system and tubers
Animals: e.g. Hamster, mouse, mole and earthworm