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Polar regions


Definition:

To the Polargebiet The areas between Pol (+ - 90th latitude) and the Arctic Circle (66th latitude) belong. In the northern hemisphere, this mainly affects the northern areas of Russia, Canada, Alaska and Greenland. In the southern hemisphere, in principle, only the Antarctic is to be polarized. This includes the entire continent of Antarctica.
Three different ecosystems are possible in the polar region:
cold steppe (Tundra): with low rainfall vegetation is possible up to small shrubs. In summer, temperatures above freezing are possible for a short time.
cold desert: also called scree desert. Vegetation consists of mosses, lichens and flat grasses. Because of the permafrost and the negligible rainfall, other manifestations of vegetation are not possible.
ice desert: animal or plant life practically excluded. Average temperature is always well below freezing (-40 ° C to -20 ° C).

Extension of the polar regions:

Characteristics of the polar regions:

low humidity
treeless vegetation; only mosses, ferns & grasses
permafrost
Snow or polar snow as precipitation
very short vegetation periods (1 - 3 months)
negative radiation balance
little to no precipitation
Temperatures permanently in the minus range
Polar night, polar day and polar lights
little biodiversity
very shallow sun angle
extreme minus temperatures of less than -40 ° C
no seasons